[465] [529] Other events since the GEA's creation have included comedy shows, professional wrestling events and monster truck rallies. [335] The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom had unsuccessfully[336] urged President Barack Obama to raise human rights concerns with King Abdullah on his March 2014 visit to the Kingdom especially the imprisonments of Sultan Hamid Marzooq al-Enezi, Saud Falih Awad al-Enezi, and Raif Badawi. Islamic dietary laws are enforced: pork is not allowed and other animals are slaughtered in accordance with halal. The rate of literacy is 97.1% among males and is about 92.71% among females (2017). [311] In addition, there is an Al Mukhabarat Al A'amah military intelligence service. This was after he performed a concert attended by more than 10,000 people in the heritage site north-west of Riyadh. [129][130], Although male-only municipal elections were held on 29 September 2011,[131][132] Abdullah allowed women to vote and be elected in the 2015 municipal elections, and also to be nominated to the Shura Council. Although this is normally translated as "the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" in English,[49] it literally means "the Saudi Arab kingdom",[50] or "the Arab Saudi Kingdom". [480] The Saudi government has often been viewed as an active oppressor of Shia Muslims because of the funding of the Wahhabi ideology which denounces the Shia faith. [16] Following his death in 632, his followers rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia, conquering huge and unprecedented swathes of territory (from the Iberian Peninsula in the West to modern-day Pakistan in the East) in a matter of decades. [388] Matthew Simmons has suggested that Saudi Arabia is greatly exaggerating its reserves and may soon show production declines (see peak oil).[389]. [66] The capital of Midian was Qurayyah,[67] it consists of a large fortified citadel encompassing 35 hectares and below it lies a walled settlement of 15 hectares. 156–157. [436][437] Estimates of the Sunni population of Saudi Arabia range between 75% and 90%, with the remaining 10–25% being Shia Muslim. The kingdom has a long-standing military relationship with Pakistan, it has long been speculated that Saudi Arabia secretly funded Pakistan's atomic bomb programme and seeks to purchase atomic weapons from Pakistan, in near future. [396] Authors of the video claim that 22 percent of Saudis may be considered poor (2009). Saudi Arabia's command economy is petroleum-based; roughly 63%[378] of budget revenues and 67%[379] of export earnings come from the oil industry. [569][570][571], In February 2017, Saudi Arabia appointed its first woman to head the Saudi Stock Exchange. The capital Riyadh, located in the heart of the country, is supplied with desalinated water pumped from the Persian Gulf over a distance of 467 km. ", "These may be the world's first images of dogsand they're wearing leashes", The World around the Old Testament: The People and Places of the Ancient Near East, The political map of Arabia and the Middle East in the third century AD revealed by a Sabaean inscription, "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia", Reaching for Power: The Shi'a in the Modern Arab World, "History of Saudi Arabia. However, in August 2019, the kingdom's strategy received criticism for appearing as a method of sportswashing soon after Saudi's US based 2018 lobbying campaign foreign registration documentations got published online. In the early 7th century, Muhammad united the various tribes of the peninsula and created a single Islamic religious polity. [13], The territory that now constitutes Saudi Arabia was the site of several ancient cultures and civilizations. [80], On 29 January 2011, hundreds of protesters gathered in the city of Jeddah in a rare display of criticism against the city's poor infrastructure after deadly floods swept through the city, killing 11 people. Rendus inquiets par l'invasion du Koweït par l' Irak , en 1990, ses dirigeants appuient la coalition dirigée par les Américains qui interviendra militairement contre l'agresseur l'année suivante. [75] In antiquity, Gulf of Aqaba used to be called Gulf of Lihyan. Arabie Saoudite et Emirats Arabes Unis (EAU) sont les deux principales économies du Moyen-Orient.Les deux pays font partie du Conseil de coopération du Golfe (CCG) - une alliance économique et politique établie à Riyad en 1981 entre six pays du Moyen-Orient: Bahreïn, Koweït, Oman, Qatar, Arabie saoudite et Émirats arabes unis. L’Arabie saoudite a une population de 28 000 000 d’habitants pour une densité de 13 habitants par km 2. It was feared that the country's Shi'ite minority in the Eastern Province (which is also the location of the oil fields) might rebel under the influence of their Iranian co-religionists. [289] Another documentary by Bryan Fogel, The Dissident, which excavated a web of deceit behind the murder, was to be released on the same day that marked second death anniversary of Khashoggi. [428][429], The official language of Saudi Arabia is Arabic. The Al Jouf farms are located in Sakaka, a city in the north-western part of Saudi Arabia, which is a deeply-rooted in history. Le sultanat d'Oman est également un pays où il existe une certaine pauvreté, bien que les données chiffrées soient rares. [418], The ethnic composition of Saudi citizens is 90% Arab and 10% Afro-Asian. "[551], Women face discrimination in the courts, where the testimony of one man equals that of two women in family and inheritance law. [597][607], In 2018, Saudi Arabia ranked 28th worldwide in terms of high-quality research output according to the scientific journal Nature. L’ Arabie saoudite est une monarchie absolue islamique dirigée par la famille Saoud depuis sa création en 1932 par Ibn Séoud. [546] The World Economic Forum 2010 Global Gender Gap Report ranked Saudi Arabia 129th out of 134 countries for gender parity. Milk production boasts a remarkably productive annual rate of 1,800 gallons per cow, one of the highest in the world. Saudi Arabia is now completely self-sufficient in a number of foodstuffs, including meat, milk and eggs. [55], There is evidence that human habitation in the Arabian Peninsula dates back to about 125,000 years ago. Although now extremely wealthy, Saudi Arabia's economy was near stagnant. Les Perspectives pour l'économie mondiale étudient les tendances de l’économie dans le monde et leur impact sur les pays en développement. [288], In September 2020, Showtime announced that it will premiere its original documentary, Kingdom of Silence, on 2 October that year. According to Arab News columnist Abdel Aziz Aluwaisheg, "in almost every one of these areas, consumers have raised serious concerns about the performance of these privatized entities. [30], The state has attracted criticism for a variety of reasons including: its role in the Yemeni Civil War, sponsorship of Islamic terrorism, its failure to adopt adequate measures against human trafficking, and its poor human rights record, which has been characterized by the lack of women's rights, excessive and often extrajudicial use of capital punishment, state-sponsored discrimination against religious minorities and atheists, state-sanctioned racism and antisemitism, and its strict interpretation of Shari'a law. Sa limite nord est plus subjective mais peut être définie géographiquement par la faille du Levant au nord-ouest et la plaine de Mésopotamie (notamment l'Euphrate) au nord-est. [104] With the aid of the Ikhwan, Ibn Saud captured Al-Ahsa from the Ottomans in 1913. [128] On 18 March the same year, King Abdullah announced a package of $93 billion, which included 500,000 new homes to a cost of $67 billion, in addition to creating 60,000 new security jobs. Faifi is spoken by about 50,000. [195] The Sharia court system constitutes the basic judiciary of Saudi Arabia and its judges (qadi) and lawyers form part of the ulema, the country's Islamic scholars. [308] Congress overwhelmingly rejected President Barack Obama's veto. Directed by filmmaker Rick Rowley, the documentary examines the relationship between the US and Saudi Arabia, as a backdrop to the murder of Khashoggi, along with the interactions between the Trump administration and Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman. The concert also included shows by Enrique Iglesias and The Black Eyed Peas. The disclosure raised concerns regarding Riyadh’s aggressive interest in developing atomic weapons program. [citation needed] Saudi Arabia spends 8.8% of its gross domestic product on education, compared with the global average of 4.6%. The family's vast numbers allow it to control most of the kingdom's important posts and to have an involvement and presence at all levels of government. [215], Saudi Arabia joined the UN in 1945[49][216] and is a founding member of the Arab League, Gulf Cooperation Council, Muslim World League, and the Organization of the Islamic Conference (now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation). Elle est ento… It is strongly dependent on foreign workers with about 80% of those employed in the private sector being non-Saudi. L'Arabie, ou péninsule arabique (شبه الجزيرة العربية (shibh al-jazīra al-ʿarabīyah) « la presqu'île arabe » ou جزيرة العرب (jazīratu Al-ʿArab) « l'île des Arabes »), est une vaste péninsule située au sud-ouest de l'Asie, à la jonction entre ce continent et l'Afrique. [141] Outside of the Al-Saud, participation in the political process is limited to a relatively small segment of the population and takes the form of the royal family consulting with the ulema, tribal sheikhs and members of important commercial families on major decisions. In 2005, the first municipal elections were held. For the next five years, he administered the two parts of his dual kingdom as separate units. [161] In a country that is said to "belong" to the royal family and is named for them,[53] the lines between state assets and the personal wealth of senior princes are blurred. [114], The second event was the Grand Mosque Seizure in Mecca by Islamist extremists. [86] Ufsurid rule was weakened after Persian rulers of Hormuz captured Bahrain and Qatif in 1320. The State of Lihyan: A New Perspective – p. 192, Rohmer, J. [577], In March 2018, a law was passed allowing Saudi mothers to retain custody of their children after divorce without having to file any lawsuits. [479] The official and dominant form of Islam in the kingdom—Wahhabism—arose in the central region of Najd, in the 18th century. The royal family dominates the political system. A number of scholars have suggested that Dilmun originally designated the eastern province of Saudi Arabia, notably linked with the major Dilmunite settlements of Umm an-Nussi and Umm ar-Ramadh in the interior and Tarout on the coast.